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Publications of SPCL
|G. Kathareios, C. Minkenberg, B. Prisacari, G. Rodriguez, T. Hoefler:|
|Cost-Effective Diameter-Two Topologies: Analysis and Evaluation|
(presented in Austin, TX, USA, ACM, ISBN: 978-1-4503-3723-6, Nov. 2015, In Proceedings of the International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC15) )
AbstractHPC network topology design is currently shifting from high-performance, higher-cost Fat-Trees to more cost-effective architectures. Three diameter-two designs, the Slim Fly, Multi-Layer Full-Mesh, and Two-Level Orthogonal Fat-Tree excel in this, exhibiting a cost per endpoint of only 2 links and 3 router ports with lower end-to-end latency and higher scalability than traditional networks of the same total cost. However, other than for the Slim Fly, there is currently no clear understanding of the performance and routing of these emerging topologies. For each network, we discuss minimal, indirect random, and adaptive routing algorithms along with deadlock-avoidance mechanisms. Using these, we evaluate the performance of a series of representative workloads, from global uniform and worst-case traffic to the all-to-all and near-neighbor exchange patterns prevalent in HPC applications. We show that while all three topologies have similar performance, OFTs scale to twice as many endpoints at the same cost as the others.